The history of the creation of computers consists of five stages. With each new modernization of the element base, the appearance of the computer, its properties and characteristics changed. The transformations that took place with computers took a leap about every eight to ten years.
The world’s first computer was produced in America in 1945 (October), whose name was “ENIAC”. The first computers used vacuum tubes. For example, seven years after the release of a new computer, the first industrial computer was manufactured and released by IBM. This computer model occupied about thirty square meters, consumed a lot of electricity and had practically no reliability. To find a breakdown or malfunction in this computer, a specialist took from three to five days.
The second generation of computers was dominated by transistors, which were much more reliable while consuming much less power and taking up less space. One of the greatest achievements in the field of computers in our country was the creation of computers with increased performance of actions (about 1 million operations per second) by A. Lebedev together with his team.
The next generation of computers was created using an integrated circuit. This scheme is presented in the form of a single crystal. The body of such a crystal contains transistors, capacitors, resistors and diodes. The processors were created according to the new technology scheme.
In 1964 and 1969, third-generation cars began to be produced and produced in different countries. The sign of the generation has ceased to be determined by the elementary base, starting from about the sixties. They began to consider such features as the composition of the apparatus, the functionality and structure of the computer, as well as software.
In the process of improving integrated circuits, microprocessors began to appear. These elements were made from a single crystal and included random access memory. The advent of computers with modernized integrated circuits marked the beginning of the fourth generation of computers. New computers have become much more practical due to their small size, as well as increased reliability and lower cost. Mini-computers and micro-computers began to appear. The latter were called personal computers. They made it possible for the people who used them to enhance their intellectual abilities and help in their implementation.
Around the eighties, it became clear that computer technology greatly helps to facilitate work and increase its productivity, as it easily copes with the processing of large flows of information. Computers were actively introduced into all kinds of sectors of the national economy, which stimulated developers and gave impetus to the development of new technologies. Requirements for the fifth-generation machines have appeared, but those have not been created at the moment.